Función del cuadrado femoral y el obturador externo

Primary functions of the quadratus femoris and obturator externus muscles indicated from lengths and moment arms measured in mobilized cadavers

Este artículo es originalmente publicado en:

Vaarbakken K1, Steen H2, Samuelsen G3, Dahl HA4, Leergaard TB5, Stuge B6.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2015 Mar;30(3):231-7. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2015.02.004. Epub 2015 Feb 11.
Todos los derechos reservados para:

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


La literatura existente ha demostrado que los músculos Cuadrado femoral (QF) y el Obturador externo (OE) son algunos de los músculos que más frecuentemente se lesionan en la cadera, pero a menudo se pasan por alto debido a la falta de conocimiento disponible en la actualidad de su  funcionalidad y diagnóstico.

A fin de comprender mejor su papel en los síntomas de la cadera, los autores del presente estudio se propusieron definir claramente la fuerza máxima primaria y ​​ las posiciones de estiramiento del QF y OE. Tras la investigación se demostró que la fuerza máxima del QF es desde una posición de flexión de cadera hacia la extensión, mientras que la del OE es desde una posición de extensión hacia flexión y aducción de cadera.

La medición de la longitud muscular y la amplitud de movimiento se realizaron en tres cadáveres humanos. Se utilizaron cables para simular el QF y el OE diseccionados. Las longitudes se registraron cada quince grados con y sin abducción, aducción y rotación al final del rango.

Los programas de rehabilitación son diseñados a menudo en torno a la comprensión exacta del estiramiento y el fortalecimiento de músculos específicos. Teniendo en cuenta la falta de consenso en cuanto al QF y OE este estudio ayudará a aclarar el conocimiento en cuanto a su anatomía clínica. El estiramiento máximo del se realizó en flexión, aducción o abducción y rotación interna. La fuerza se generó de manera óptima en 60-90 grados de flexión. El OE mostró un estiramiento máximo en extensión, abducción y rotación interna, con el mayor momento generado con las caderas en posición neutra.

De: Vaarbakken et al., Clin Biomech 30 (2016) 231-237(Publ. antes de impresión). Todos los derechos reservados: Elsevier Ltd.. Pincha aquí para acceder al resumen de Pubmed.. Traducido por Javier Gonzalez Iglesias.



The small muscles of the pelvis and hip are often implicated in painful conditions. Although the quadratus femoris and obturator externus are usually described as external rotators of the hip, little is known about how they change their lengths and moment arms during human movement. Therefore, more precise measurements defining the positions and directions for their maximal strength and stretch are needed to better describe their functions and guide the clinical approach to pain.


Repeated measurements of the muscle lengths and range of motion were obtained using wires simulating dissected muscles on human cadaver hips. The lengths were measured at every 15° of flexion with and without maximal range of ab/adduction, rotation, and combinations of the two motions. Measurements were obtained from normal hips (n=3), and movement-lengthening relations were later differentiated into movement-moment arm relations.


The quadratus femoris showed maximum lengthening by flexion, adduction or abduction, and internal rotation, with the largest moment arms observed for extension in the deduced force-length efficient range of 60-90° flexion. The obturator externus showed maximum lengthening by extension, abduction, and internal rotation, with the largest moment arms observed for flexion and adduction in the deduced force-length efficient range around the hip’s neutral position.


Our findings indicate that maximal strength of the quadratus femoris muscle will be delivered in a flexed position towards extension, while maximal strength of the obturator externus muscle will be delivered in an extended position towards flexion and adduction.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


External hip rotators; Function; Human cadaver; Length measurements; Moment arm; Range of motion; Strength; Stretch

PMID: 25697090 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]



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